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Get Full Essay Get access to this section to get all help you need with your essay and educational issues. Get Access Culturally Based Value Systems Essay Sample 1 Discuss the stages in the negotiation process and how culturally based value systems influence these stages.
Specifically, Explain the role and relative importance of relationship building in different countries Discuss the various styles and tactics that can be involved in exchanging task-related information Describe differences in culturally based styles of persuasion Discuss the kinds of concession strategies a negotiator might anticipate in various countries There are five stages in the negotiation process: Such information as the demands being made as well as the composition of the other team have to be ascertained beforehand.
Other cultures value trust whereas Americans value time and money. Other nations such as China and Mexico place more value than do Americans on personal rather than contractual ties. It is recommended that managers learn patience in the negotiating process, which may involve much ceremony and socializing before real negotiating can begin.
Intermediaries familiar to and trusted by the foreign contingent may be necessary to facilitate meetings. Our culture has to learn that terms such as compromise have different connotations in other nations.
Posturing, or setting the tone of negotiations is important in other cultures. Americans have come to realize that their straightforward, pragmatic approach is not necessarily the one favored by other nations. Indirect, ambiguous, protocol-conscious, and contentious describe the modus operandi of Mexico, China, Russia and France respectively in the art of negotiating.
Mexicans distrust directness, the Chinese ask many questions, Russians are thoroughly prepared to deal with top executives only, and the French want to debate issues as a matter of course during negotiations.
Whereas countries such as Brazil promise less and command more, Americans or Japanese offer more promises and more threats. Far Eastern cultures do much behind the scenes in the negotiation process. Certain countries actually begin negotiations with misinformation.
Rough tactics such as uncomfortable physical settings, threats, delays and histrionics such as shouting and desk-pounding are simply the way of negotiations in other countries and are sometimes employed by Americans as well.
Non-verbal tactics employed by non-Western societies are subtle and culturally ingrained. These include facial gazing, touching, silent periods and interruptions.
Studies have been done to help American negotiators become aware of and in tune with such behaviors and to recognize our own idiosyncrasies, some of which we share with others.
However, in other cultures such as in the Far East, negotiating is done in a more holistic manner whereby the deal is made at the end rather than incrementally. How does this behavior affect the negotiation process in a cross-cultural context? The philosophies of people determine their outlook and behavior at the negotiating table.
The Japanese way is diametrically opposed to the impatience and directness of Americans. The Japanese culture of politeness dictates that time during negotiation be spent doing non-task sounding which involves polite conversation and informal communication.
Their use of silent periods would seem unusual to someone from Brazil who would be animated during negotiations, spontaneous and talkative and interrupting. Whereas the Brazilian would use much touching and facial gazing, Americans and Japanese aver these tactics. What is the role of risk propensity in the decision-making process?
A higher tolerance for risk taking exists in cultures such as America in which decisions are made quickly, and where decision making is more centralized.
Because Americans are future oriented rather than dependent on past decisions, such as in Europe, they are more willing to take risks and see what will happen rather than what has happened before.
Because Americans are more individualistic in their approach to decision making, this also would make them better risk takers than people of collectivist societies who defer to one another for the good of the group and are afraid of insulting anyone by going out on a limb.
Reliance on consensus would necessarily slow down the process and this would not be consonant with risk taking. Societies who are more fatalistic in their approach would not take risks and go against fate. Westerners are goal oriented and thus more willing to take risks than non-Westerners, who value relationships, peace, and harmony or social traditions over taking risks to reach material goals.
What role do you think this variable has played in all of the negotiations and decisions between Iraq and the United Nations? Western cultures believe in taking an objective, rational approach to decision making.
They use objective facts to consider alternative approaches to problems. Other cultures, including those of Latin America, are more emotional, thus subjective in their approach. Americans, then, would be more utilitarian and conscious of the bottom line than managers in China, in which the subjectivity of moral idealism rules decision making.
The personalized, collectivist nature of decision-making by non-Western peoples would necessarily be more subjective than in cultures which consider empirical data such as time and cost in their decisions rather than the feelings and consensus of others.
How does this belief influence the decision-making process? Whether the locus of control, which is an important variable of the decision-making process is external or internal is culturally determined.
Some managers believe they have control over the direction and outcome of decisions they make. Managers of other cultures leave the outcomes of decisions to forces outside themselves, whether it be God or fate.
Where American managers are self-reliant in decision-making processes, those of other societies, the Far East in particular, are resigned in their approach, feeling there is nothing they can do to change matters.An examination of the possibilities for libertarian feminism, taking the feminist thought of the 19th century radical individualists as an example and a guide.
We find that the radical libertarian critique of statism and the radical feminist critique of patriarchy are complementary, not contradictory, and we discuss some of the confusions that lead many libertarians--including many libertarian.
1) Discuss the stages in the negotiation process and how culturally based value systems influence these stages. Specifically, Explain the role and relative importance of relationship building in different countries Discuss the various styles and tactics that can be involved in exchanging task-related information Describe differences in culturally based styles of persuasion Discuss the kinds of.
Definition Essay About Cultural Values Definition essay is a type of writing which requires the writer to develop and explain his or her personal characterization of a notion. Also, the classifications and the view of various scholars can be included. Dear Twitpic Community - thank you for all the wonderful photos you have taken over the years.
We have now placed Twitpic in an archived state. I have long called myself a social conservative. I think it is very important to have standards for behaviour (etiquette) and defined roles.
|Untitled | Slate Star Codex||Our first task is therefore to provide a clear definition of equality in the face of widespread misconceptions about its meaning as a political idea.|
The problems with this system is not that it exists, but the lack of flexibility and the value placed on them. Intercultural competence is a range of cognitive, affective, and behavioural skills that lead to effective and appropriate communication with people of other cultures.
Effective intercultural communication relates to behaviors that culminate with the accomplishment of the desired goals of the interaction and all parties involved in the situation.