TABLE 5 Immunizations for Ambulatory Care Staff A 3-dose series of hepatitis B vaccine at no cost to the employee is mandated by OSHA and must be offered to all people whose job category, specified in the bloodborne pathogen exposure control plan for the facility, indicates likely exposure to bloodborne pathogens. If there is an inadequate response to the second series, the HCP should be regarded as nonimmune and advice from an infectious disease expert should be obtained if the HCP is subsequently exposed; 5556 ; Employees should be immunized against measles, mumps, rubella, and varicella unless immunity is documented by serologic testing or there is documentation of immunization Table 5 ; All employees should be immunized once using tetanus and diphtheria toxoids and pertussis vaccine designed for adolescents and adults and every 10 years thereafter with a tetanus and diphtheria toxoids vaccine 6970 ; and Health care facilities should provide an influenza vaccine annually to all HCP at no cost. In more recent studies, researchers confirm that the immunization of an individual with an egg allergy, including anaphylaxis, can be performed safely with any of the available influenza vaccines, although a recombinant vaccine is an option. In HCP, screening for TB should be performed before employment to ensure that people with a tuberculous infection are detected early and, if necessary, treated.
Retroviruses go a stage further by having their genetic material copied into the genome of the host cell. A number of viruses have been used for human gene therapy, including retrovirusesadenovirusesherpes simplexvacciniaand adeno-associated virus.
Non-viral[ edit ] Non-viral methods present certain advantages over viral methods, such as large scale production and low host immunogenicity. However, non-viral methods initially produced lower levels Cystic fibrosis term paper transfection and gene expressionand thus lower therapeutic efficacy.
Later technology remedied this deficiency. Short-lived nature — Before gene therapy can become a permanent cure for a condition, the therapeutic DNA introduced into target cells must remain functional and the cells containing the therapeutic DNA must be stable.
Problems with integrating therapeutic DNA into the genome and the rapidly dividing nature of many cells prevent it from achieving long-term benefits. Patients require multiple treatments. Immune response — Any time a foreign object is introduced into human tissues, the immune system is stimulated to attack the invader.
Stimulating the immune system in a way that reduces gene therapy effectiveness is possible. Problems with viral vectors — Viral vectors carry the risks of toxicity, inflammatory responses, and gene control and targeting issues. Some therapies may breach the Weismann barrier between soma and germ-line protecting the testes, potentially modifying the germline, falling afoul of regulations in countries that prohibit the latter practice.
This has occurred in clinical trials for X-linked severe combined immunodeficiency X-SCID patients, in which hematopoietic stem cells were transduced with a corrective transgene using a retrovirusand this led to the development of T cell leukemia in 3 of 20 patients.
This may be problematic since the longer the DNA is, the harder it is to integrate into cell genomes. The first was that of Jesse Gelsingerwho died in because of immune rejection response.
Production of the missing enzyme was temporarily stimulated, but the new cells with functional genes were not generated. She led a normal life only with the regular injections performed every two months.
The effects were successful, but temporary. This therapy also represents the beginning of cancer immunogene therapy, a treatment which proves to be effective due to the anti-tumor mechanism of IGF-I antisense, which is related to strong immune and apoptotic phenomena.
In Claudio Bordignonworking at the Vita-Salute San Raffaele Universityperformed the first gene therapy procedure using hematopoietic stem cells as vectors to deliver genes intended to correct hereditary diseases. Clinical trials were halted temporarily inbut resumed after regulatory review of the protocol in the US, the United Kingdom, France, Italy, and Germany.
The allele that codes for adenosine deaminase ADA was obtained and inserted into a retrovirus.Cystic Fibrosis Research Paper Cystic fibrosis or mucoviscidosis is a systemic inherited disease, caused by the mutation of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) and characterized by exocrine gland involvement, and heavy disorders in the functions of breathing organs.
The first gene therapy for patients with cystic fibrosis occurred in , which truly started further studies in CF gene therapy. Cystic fibrosis comes with many odd symptoms which are caused by the defects in the CFTR gene’s amino acid sequence. Cystic fibrosis affects organs like the lungs, the gastrointestinal tract, the pancreas and the liver.
Cystic fibrosis can also affect the sweat glands and the male reproductive system. In cystic fibrosis, exocrine glands make thick, sticky mucus.
Exocrine glands normally make thin slippery secretions like sweat, mucus, tears, saliva and digestive juices. Jul 01, · Cystic fibrosis pulmonary guidelines: airway clearance therapies. Respir Care ; – The Cystic Fibrosis Foundation established a committee to examine the clinical evidence forefficacy and safety of the variety of airway clearance therapies (ACTs) available.
Research paper example essay prompt: The Cystic Fibrosis Gene - words NOTE: The samle research paper or essay prompt you see on this page is a free essay, available to anyone.
You can use any paper as a sample on how to write research paper, essay prompts or as a source of information. Cystic Fibrosis Imaging of the Disease Term Paper Pages: 30 ( words) | Style: Harvard | Bibliography Sources: 60 Cystic Fibrosis in the Modern Era disease that steals a childhood, adolescence and adulthood in an assault on the lungs and other vital organs that cause every living action to revolve around the diagnosis, care, and treatment of the condition; it is Cystic Fibrosis (CF).