Disability Identify the current legislation and codes of practice relevant to the promotion of equality and valuing of diversity. Previous to this, equality legislation in this country was somewhat fragmented. It sought to promote equality, by clarifying the definitions of direct and indirect discrimination, victimisation and harassment. It calls on public bodies including schools to advance equal opportunity between people who share a protected characteristic and people who do not, and to foster good relationships between people of all characteristics.
Discrimination Inequality exists, even in societies without formal Justice and diversity equal opportunities ageism essay Parsons, Inequality takes different forms and there is much theoretical debate regarding which grouping variables, such as gender or age, are important.
Conversely, the radical perspective, a maximalist concept, is more concerned with outcome. This paper outlines these three approaches, evaluates their successes and considers whether Managing Diversity MD may prove more useful. Formal equality of opportunity, or procedural justice Weale,underpins UK anti-discrimination legislation and anti-discriminatory statements in EO policies and some United States policies.
This notion formed the core of such legislation as the Sex Discrimination Act amendedRace Relations Actamended and Disability Discrimination Actnow superseded by the Equality Act The concept is that when two individuals have equal status in at least one normatively relevant respect, they must be treated equally in this regard.
The formal ideal is equality of treatment; that all will be treated equally, unless otherwise justified by knowledge, experience or ability. Whilst recognizing this, the model also accepts that EO policies cannot equalize society, that unequal abilities and merits inevitably result in unequal positions for the unequally qualified.
Merit, thus, is the key criterion in the labour market for differential treatment Mullender and Thompson, For economists Milton and Rose Friedman, EO should not be interpreted literally, but there should exist no arbitrary obstacles blocking individuals from realizing their ambitions Friedman and Friedman, Proponents of the formal approach hold that competition is no less equitable than any other method of allocating employment or places in education Blakemore and Drake, Macpherson defined the concept of institutionalised racism, which achieved central recognition and was eventually adopted by the Metropolitan Police Service and other agencies.
For Johns and Greensimply to address individual, direct forms of discrimination is insufficient; only two forms of EO can be aimed at institutional discrimination — radical which they do not support or liberal.
The model recognises that the effects of past discrimination are likely to impact negatively on current equality of opportunity and the impact of institutional discrimination. Here, whilst merit-based recruitment may be applied, some individuals may not have had the same opportunities as a result of such group characteristics as gender or ethnicity.
A need to employ policies to reduce gaps in income, educational attainment, wealth and health was recognised and addressed by such legislation as the Equal Pay Act,Sex Discrimination Act and Race Relations Act superceded by the Equality Act Liberal notions of equality became the preferred option of New Labour following the Macpherson Report.
For Edwards and Batleyit can be used in two different ways. It can mean targeting additional resources to underprivileged areas, sometimes termed area-based positive discrimination, exemplified by such government programmes as the Urban Programme from the s onwards and, more recently, the New Deal for Communities Neighbourhood Renewal Unit, Simply preventing discrimination, even if this were possible, is not enough to equalise opportunities, as it only preserves and maintains the status quo.
Positive action, the more common form of liberal equality, takes a variety of forms. These include establishing goals and targets, out-reach recruitment efforts, advertising in specific forms of media aimed at certain groups, even additional training for those already in post.
This is done in recognition of systemic disadvantage and in an attempt to equalize background conditions. Whilst, as stated, this has been legal since the s at least in relation to race, ethnicity, nationality and gendersuch activities were rare until the late s Iganski and Mason, Positive action now forms a central component of the EO agenda for the public sector and often the private sector.
However, any real scope to influence the labour market by these means is limited by fiscal men and five percent emanated from ethnic minority backgrounds. Moreover, only fifty-nine percent were selected from the A-list; the remainder were local candidates.
As well as similarities, there are philosophical differences between formal and liberal approaches.
Although theorists have attempted to conflate them Liff,Iganski and Mason highlight fundamental contradiction, asserting that these principals are mutually exclusive equality policy options. The formal commands equal treatment, while the liberal requires differential treatment.
Even if used during different stages of selection processes which is unusual they remain philosophically opposed.
For Colebatch this has crucial implications for effective EO policies, since consistency is universally recognised as a central prerequisite for any policy measure. Radical equality of opportunity conflicts with both the formal and liberal approaches since it is concerned with outcomes, or equal shares, rather than opportunity.
A radical approach may be justified by the limitations of the principles of the formal and liberal. From a radical viewpoint, degrees of equality and inequality are demonstrated by representation; the focus is to achieve equal outcomes by removing entrenched social divisions.
In this model, organisations become microcosms of wider society and some inequality is acceptable, provided it reflects variation in aptitude, ability and personal choice Blakemore and Drake, Radical thinking questions the possibility of merit being objectively defined, arguing instead that it is socially constructed, that powerful groups set societal criteria which are neither value-neutral nor fair.
Bourdieufor example, highlighted resistance to standardisation in educational testing systems, originating from an inherited elite fighting to preserve invisible modes of evaluation that reproduce the privileged status of a select few.
From this perspective, skills, abilities and knowledge are not equally available to all. Further, Human Resources HR procedures cannot produce equitable outcomes Cockburn, ; Liff,so emphasis is placed less on procedures and more on labour market outcomes.
The radical solution is to politicise decision-making processes in order to promote the interests of disadvantaged groups and overcome inherent or historical bias.
The state should be acknowledged as a key player in any practice which will ensure equitable employment outcomes for all groups in society Waring, Affirmative Action, known in the UK as positive discrimination, refers to radical equality policies which consider variables such as race, religion or gender in order to benefit underrepresented groups in employment or education.Despite this, many aged people face retirement socially isolated, void of self-discovery and development, and ageism has succeeded in removing the aged from leisure opportunities and experiences.
[tags: social isolation, loneliness]. Justice and Diversity - Equal Opportunities - Ageism Professional issues that are relevant to ageism and equal opportunities are policies, which all health care professionals should work to.
Another issue would be the Nursing and Midwifery Council Code of Professional Conduct.5/5(1). These organizations are working to research and engage on issues of racial equity.
The principal mission of the Lawyers' Committee for Civil Rights Under Law is to secure equal justice for all through the rule of law, targeting in particular the inequities confronting African Americans and other racial and ethnic minorities. PICO values. plombier-nemours.com is the preeminent organization dedicated to recognition of academic and professional success, and to empower members to achieve.
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Introduction. Equal opportunities are very important in the modern workplace. Providing equal opportunities involves providing the same opportunities to all the employees and prospective employees .